Roadmap for back-end developers

The path you should follow to become a back-end developer

The goal of this article isn’t to delve into specific programming concepts but rather to guide you on your journey as a programmer. It highlights the essential skills and steps to becoming an expert developer. In this piece, I’ll outline the roadmap you should pursue and the sequence to follow. Let’s get started.

Start with C/C++

The ideal starting point for your coding journey is with C or C++.

Why not begin with Python, Java, or other popular languages? The reason is that many of these languages abstract away foundational concepts. C/C++ brings you closer to the machine’s operations, allowing a more intimate understanding of data structures. While advanced languages offer built-in functions for numerous tasks, they might not provide the foundational grasp you need initially. However, they will undoubtedly be beneficial as you progress.

It’s essential to understand the mechanics of pointers and how to execute different string operations (using char arrays) without relying on built-in functions. By doing so, you’ll gain a deeper understanding of the time and memory complexities associated with each operation. This foundational knowledge will become second nature, ingrained in your subconscious for the long term.

Data structures, algorithms, and Problem-solving

Problem-solving is an indispensable skill for every programmer. It’s preferable to face and overcome these challenges early on rather than grapple with them indefinitely.

The backbone of software development is data structures and algorithms. Dedicate a significant portion of your learning to these subjects. I advise allocating at least 1-2 years (during your student years) exclusively to mastering DSA and honing your problem-solving skills. This investment will benefit you throughout your career.

To enhance these skills, I suggest actively and genuinely participating in programming contests.

For a comprehensive guide on this topic, please refer to the article below.

Building a Strong Coding Foundation | by Skilled Coder | Level Up Coding (

Java/OOPs and Design patterns

Eventually, you’ll need to delve into object-oriented programming (OOP), as professional development is virtually inconceivable without it. The go-to language for this is Java.

Why Java? It stands out as the most widely recognized and extensively used language in the industry.

Familiarize yourself with the foundational concepts of OOP and various programming principles such as SOLID, DRY, KISS, YAGNI, and SoC, among others.

I’ll be diving deeper into each of these topics in future articles. To stay updated, ensure you’re following me on Twitter, Instagram, and Medium.

Furthermore, it’s vital to acquaint yourself with several design patterns, including singleton, factory, observer, decorator, state, and chain of responsibility. The significance of these patterns? They’ll equip you to craft code in a professional manner, adhering to industry best practices.

For more insights on this topic, check out the detailed article I’ve provided below.

Object-Oriented Programming Roadmap | by Skilled Coder | Dev Genius


Get acquainted with relational databases, specifically MySQL. Understand its internal data storage mechanisms. Dive deep into the concepts of indexing and normalization. Master join operations and become proficient in crafting queries. MySQL is especially popular in the industry, particularly for its ACID properties.

MySQL isolation levels are detailed in below article


GitHub, along with other version control systems, will be tools you interact with regularly. It’s crucial to understand how they operate. Learn the art of crafting meaningful commit messages, and acquaint yourself with the fundamental tricks and techniques of Git.

Lesser-Known Git Techniques. Discussing some not-so-common git… | by Skilled Coder | Sep, 2023 | Dev Genius


Developers should learn REST and gRPC because mastering these API designs equips them to create versatile and interoperable applications. By understanding these paradigms, developers can ensure efficient communication between services, enhance system scalability, and stay relevant in a rapidly evolving tech landscape, thereby boosting their marketability and project adaptability.

Integration, Unit Testing

Understanding Integration and Unit Testing is crucial for developers because they lay the foundation for building robust and reliable software.

Mastering these testing methodologies ensures the early detection of bugs, facilitates smoother collaboration in team environments, and guarantees the consistent functionality of individual units and their interactions.

Unit tests are a must for every method you write, ensuring a high coverage will guarantee you a good night’s sleep.

How to Write Good Unit Tests. A Simple Guide with Examples | by Skilled Coder | Sep, 2023 | Level Up Coding (

As a budding developer, the foundations are crucial. But as you advance in your career, the tech landscape broadens, introducing tools and technologies such as NoSQL, Kafka, Docker, and more.

Stay tuned, as I’ll delve deeper into these and other emerging topics in upcoming articles. Your journey in tech is ever-evolving, and I’m here to guide you through it.

Thanks for reading.